Large, long-term study finds patients develop half as much nerve, kidney and eye disease after bariatric surgery
SEATTLE — Patients with diabetes and severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery were half as likely to develop certain complications of diabetes than were those who did not have surgery, according to a new study published today in the Annals of Internal Medicine . The study was conducted by researchers at four systems in the Health Care Systems Research Network: Kaiser Permanente in Washington, Northern California and Southern California and HealthPartners Institute in Minnesota.
More than 9 percent of adult Americans — about 30 million people — are estimated to have type 2 diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. The disease tends to worsen over time, with blood-sugar levels rising, along with the risks of developing large blood vessel (macrovascular) complications like heart attack and stroke, as well as small blood vessel (microvascular) complications affecting the nerves of the feet and hands (neuropathy), the kidneys (nephropathy) and the eyes (retinopathy).
“We had already shown that around half of people with diabetes and severe obesity who receive bariatric surgery experience a seven-year remission of their diabetes when their blood-sugar levels are normal without medication,” said internist and senior author David Arterburn, MD, MPH, a senior investigator at Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute.
“But to many people with diabetes, their blood-sugar levels feel like an abstract concept,” said bariatric internist and lead author Rebecca O’Brien, MD. “What matters more to them is avoiding the harmful complications that can lead to limb pain and amputation, kidney failure and blindness.”
In this study, which included 3,949 Kaiser Permanente and 173 HealthPartners patients who received bariatric surgery, the risk of all microvascular complications at five years after surgery was less than half that of a matched control group of more than 11,000 patients who received usual medical care that did not include surgery. All patients in the study had diabetes and severe obesity (defined as a BMI of at least 35 kg/m 2). Receipt of bariatric surgery was associated with a lower risk of nerve disease (63 percent), kidney disease (59 percent) and eye disease (45 percent).
“These results suggest that everyone with diabetes and severe obesity should have a conversation with their doctor about whether bariatric surgery is a reasonable treatment option for their them, weighing the risks and benefits,” Dr. Arterburn said.
In next steps, the researcher team is conducting randomized clinical trials and observational studies of the impact of bariatric surgery versus usual medical care for people with diabetes.
Drs. O’Brien and Arterburn’s coauthors include colleagues at Kaiser Permanente in Southern California and Colorado, HealthPartners Institute in Minneapolis, the RAND Corp. in Santa Monica, and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston.
A National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases award (#5R01DK092317-04) funded this study.
Diabetes is an active area of research at Kaiser Permanente, with more than 840 articles published since 2007. An overview of this research can be found here.
Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute (KPWHRI) improves the health and health care of Kaiser Permanente members and the public. The Institute has conducted nonproprietary public-interest research on preventing, diagnosing, and treating major health problems since 1983. Government and private research grants provide our main funding. Follow KPWHRI research on Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, LinkedIn or YouTube. For more information, go to: www.kpwashingtonresearch.org.
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